Since the beginning of 1960s, the phenomena of brain drain became a highlighted and critical issue. With the neo-liberal economy and the tsunami wave of globalization has given a golden chance to the opportunists and played a vital role towards better and quality life including all accessories in every sphere of life. Globalization has opened a window for the human capital to agglomerate and mobilize where the brain extract and yet best recognized and rewarded in the highly economically strong and advanced countries.
To fulfil the interest of economically advanced countries and global knowledge based societies are struggling for the human capital. It is as natural as the nature of human being and as powerful as constructed politically to keep the self-interest. There is a lack of policy making in the academic world and on the governmental level in the developing world. Some main types of Brain drain are Brain Gain, Brain circulation, Brain waste etc.
Causes of Increased Brain Drain in developing countries
There are many factors which cause brain drain from the less developing countries to the highly developed countries. The regional, national and global flow of migrates are increasing every second. There are two main factors due to which people move from one place to another place. There are some major routes of human migration before 1950’s but highlighted in 60’s. The reasons can be different region to region; i.e. satisfactory facilities of goods and services, the reconnection of diverse cultural groups, in the time of conflict and war, political instability, health risks and the lack of opportunities. The mobility of intellectuals and skilled personnel or emigrants from the country of origin referred to as the PUSH FACTORS of their capital flight. And there are many parallel and inverse reasons for the immigrants called PULL FACTORS to attract towards host countries.
There are certain push factors causing brain drain, to leave the less developed country to developed countries as listed below:
Substandard living conditions, dearth of conveyance, accommodation
Under-utilization of skilled and semi- skilled personnel; lack of adequate working conditions; low panorama of specialized development
Low and corroding wages
Discrimination in recruitments and promotions
Social unrest, Political instability, conflicts and wars
Lack of research facilities, including support staff; meagreness of research funds, lack of professional apparatus and tools
Lack of freedom and autonomy
Deteriorating excellence of educational system,
Similarly, numerous attractive pull factors at the destination states permitting the brain drain to occur at a higher leap:
Sophisticated standard of living
greater income and Higher wages
Extensive resources for research, unconventional and advanced technology, modern facilities of laboratory equipment; availability of experienced support workforce
Healthier working conditions; employment and occupation opportunities with the proficient development
Modern educational schemes; prestige of ‘foreign training’
Political stability & foreigner secured policies
Scholarly &Intellectual autonomy
Appreciation & rewards on governmental level
Effects of Brain Drain in Developing Countries
The phenomena of brain drain has left harmful effects in the region of poor countries like Africa, because of their great hope, talents and skills have immigrated to the richer countries. As seen pragmatically, develop and rich countries become richer and more developed and poor and developing countries become poorest and failure states. Consequently, some of the outcomes have produced the poorer rates of growth and development, highly unstable politically some are in the condition of cold war like Pakistan â€¦..fewer productive educational funds, and worse health care system and Loss of potential modernizers who might have paved the way to rejuvenation and up gradation through their advanced and creative abilities.
Doctors, Engineers, scientists & students leave for the industrialized world
Africa loses the best brains it needs for its trade and industrial development
African recruitment of thousands of expatriates from the industrialized West at a cost of billions every year
increased deterioration of higher schooling
Universities have to be close, extension of higher education not possible
Poor people seriously affected by the epidemic, infectious diseases
Universities unable to run and achieving Development Goals
In the global knowledge economy, Africa becoming sidelined
Due to the pitiable environment, Lack of skilled people.
Crumbling poor & middle class
political instability & religious persecution
Corruption of income tax equal to less basic goods and services
Economic instability leads to increased rate of unemployment and inflation
Lack of industrial growth & innovation.
The brain drain may cause numerous positive effects for source countries. It is well documented that remittances of employees’ played a significant support to GNP of a country and are a viable spring of income in several developing countries. Remittances and transmittals intrude on family decisions in terms of professional choice, labor supply, education, investment migration, and fertility, with hypothetically essential aggregated special effects. Especially in the case of poor countries, where market inadequacies available to members of low-income classes reduce the set of possibilities.
Brain Circulation equalizes Brain Drain
Transnational corporation and increase in Foreign Direct Investment
When possibility of migration is real. level of education in sending countries rises
Amalgamation in global economies
Recommendation for the developing countries:
How the future of developing countries can preserve and what should be the recommendation?
Establish recorded database of skilled, intellectual, students and specialists on the time of departure from LDC’s.
Reformation of the national education system and the infrastructure of schools, colleges and universities.
High budget allocated for the higher education and use of funds purely for the education projects.
Sufficient facilities for research projects in universities and establish the research cells.
Encourage the distant learning and education for all.
Pure democracy, encourage human rights and enforce the legislation, strictly keep an eye on the law and order situation to stable and regulate the factors like corruption, crime etc.
On governmental level, the allocation of budgets to the science and technology organizations and from the health sector to control the infectious diseases.
Introduce new policies and laws to reduce the conflict and war at the national and international level.
Role of government should be the key role to avoid the issue of human capital flight.
Government should spend heavy fund for the infrastructure, avoid load shedding like issues and provide the demanded power supply and drinking water and the efficient communication.
Facilitate the education system through training, research, and education