Kurt Schwitters is known as the greatest master of collage in twentieth century. He was the writer, sculptor, typographer, designer, publisher and an architect while pursuing painting. He studied in Dresden from 1909-1914 and worked as clerical officer mechanical draughtsman during First World War. Kurt’s life is totally characterized by enigma and paradox same as collage, which is the medium of an irony. He was the only child of rich parents and was born in Hanover. He was diseased by epileptic attack in his youth and was very insecure. He was an introvert kind of person.
Being a student of Dresden Academy of Art, he was suitable type of student for that particular work and that was unimaginative. Schwitters was casted out by Nazis, during Nazi movement in Germany, in a similar way to that of the other German artists. He lived in English Lake District after spelling in Norway, where he died in 1948. However, he has left the art to the world, which is for all.
His paintings were impressionistic as well as naturalistic. He encountered expressionist artists that gave him the power and confidence for his own growth; own life style in Hannover in 1916. Kurt’s art was associated with Der Sturm magazine by Guggenheim. He was also the expressionist poet for that magazine.
His impressive work like Mountain graveyard was little imitation of his colleagues and it considered as an apocalyptic and mystical landscape. His work on Merzbau deserves appreciation. Dadaist, Richter considered Merzbau among the documents as different and living.
Kurt Schwitters associated with DADA movement that happened in Berlin after meeting some famous people and started making collages known as Merzibiden. Dada had been good in anarchy but not in democracy for advent garde. That name was taken out from the word Kommerzbank. Those collages made from waste materials, picked up from streets and parks in Hannover, and then he brought out new creation from those fragile materials in German culture. The raw material was useful by most of Dada for photographic purpose. The collages, assemblages and constructed montages, by using these wastes and this had an extraordinary vision but unrelated to any political way. It is very easy to understand that, how Schwitters’ artistic work is sensible. He worked for thirteen years on it from 1923-1936.
He exhibited his first collage in Berlin at Galleries Der Sturm in 1919 and he presented his abstract Merz pictures there. Then he created a sound poem named Ursonate in 1921. Kurt Schwitters was also known as the grand master of subtle colors as well as insecure balance. He was totally influenced by constructivism with dependence on primary colors and geometrical forms. Therefore, he introduced constructivist ideas into his work after 1924. That was less advantageous to his work. After using this technique, Merz pictures become very clear, simple, large and uniform then other pictures. However, he never left the principle of Merz. It seems from his work, that constructivist colors and good compositions balance by using sharp curves as well as shadows. He suffered from many problems but made himself to stay at this ground with his broad and democratic creation of Merz. He was very famous artists and his work can never drive out from people’s mind. Therefore, Royal Academy of Arts will hold a major exhibition for twentieth century artwork and it will include recreational work of the master of collage and painter Kurt Schwitters.
Kurt Schwitters was the odd man out of German DADA. He not only lived in Berlin but also created his self enclosed world’ beauty from his artistic hands in Hannover. In the earlier stages, he was known as politically motivated DADA for revolutionary times but Kurt was increased in those types of situations. He was not a known or popular Dadaist but he started calling himself with his work output “Merz”. He was the great artist for everyone, as what the artist creates is neither for proletarian nor for burgeois.
Schwitters also applied for joining Berlin DADA in early 1919. However, his request refused. He was associated with Sturm gallery, which Berlin Dadaist rejected due to his bourgeois aesthetics and romanticism. Kurt was less political, and he loved performance and abstract art very much. He was the bourgeois member of Hannover and he dedicated his whole life for society in humanity, which unites them all. His passionate behavior made him to develop the friendship attitude across national lines and his political ideas made him a separate entity. Kurt Schwitters totally influenced and absorbed by Dadaism, Cubism, constructivism and Surrealism, but he selected his own way known as “Merz”.
Gerhard Richter was born in Dresden, Saxony in 1932 in a middle class family. Then he grew up in Waltersdorf in upper countryside and Reichenau in lower Silesia. His family members and relatives were engaged in Nazi movement in Germany, his uncle died in it, and his aunt jailed. That ideology and death made him to worry when he was just a child. He was causing that type of ideology and supporting that nature as an unsystematic driving force. He left his high professional school between 1949 and 1951 and trained as a stage set and advertising painter in 1950. Then he got full support from his mother. He became an artist during his mid teen age, and joined Dresden art academy of arts in communist East Germany for classical education in 1951. In his early career, first he prepared a wall painting such as communion with Picasso in 1955. It is rightly quoted that one should always encrypt with his experience, about the mint of expression and highly emotional paroxysm within the memory.
Gerhard Richter officially started his painting in 1962. His work includes oil painting on canvas to over painted photographs with so many historical references of photograph. He started his work with famous artists such as Fischer-Lueg, Sigmer Polke and George Baselitz. Their work had an impact in Germany especially on international art circles. He believed that rejuvenating art and refreshing painting were a medium, when artists chose performance and ready-made media. With other painters, he started and formed a capitalist realists group. That group was deriving subject matter from print media. Richter started the work that separated him from art history. He believed that painting should have a focus on images instead of references and visual rather than a statement.
Gerhard Richter started his paintings from photographs in 1962. He started making pictures from found images, documentary still, snapshots and photographs. He enlarged and reproduced those images on canvas. His work includes some pictures such as family at seaside, administrative building, cow and woman with an umbrella. He exhibited those techniques, which Richter executed, for his working. Richter uses these techniques by brushing and smearing on wet paint and he blurs the images horizontally. His source images are recognizable and it results in distortion of smooth, equated and focused surfaces. His paintings such as Great sphinx of Giza and administrative building can be seen as fast moving cars. In some other photo paintings like family at the seaside, Richter uses dark as well as light contrasts that scale the details. His other pictures include some landscape and cityscape works in late 1960 and 48 portraits in 1971-1972. His paintings seem as truly expressive paintings. The work of this personality has nothing to say, but too much to show.
Gerhard Richter has recently worked on Cologne Cathedral in Germany. It is a 200 square foot window in the church and Richter had designed it for his hometown Cologne people as a gift to them. His work is fine interpretation of holy art. There is a colorful glass mosaic on the window, which looks like a fine and large pixel screen with eleven thousand squares. Richter had become a gothic and his gothic tracery work adds a frame to its glasses and adds up a serious note that creates a tension between architecture and abstract art of church. Richter’s designs are not the vision of church management. They decided to show a martyr scene on that church, five years ago, when cathedral’s head architect met him. It was Richter’s own decision that he would do this work as inspiration, and then he started doing the work. He prepared model of his famous painting named ‘4096 colors’ of 1974. However, his decision created some debates in the church and that was accepted. Nevertheless, these controversies did not stop here due to Richter’s designs. Richter’s work delighted his hometown people. There were 72 colors in this window and this architect was known as ‘Beguiling light’, that tells everything about lights, colors, humanity and spirituality.
German painter Gerhard Richter explores through Starr’s grand exhibition in New York. Richter is a painter and he can embody the transformation of painting in second half of twentieth century. His accomplished range of development should not detract from his intellectual achievement for recovery of painting at the beginning of twenty first century. His painting on museum of art reveals the size of work practiced by Richter over the decades. Richter’s work and struggle is totally related to the growth of modern society as well as culture, while all the time it keeps enveloped and breached traditional ideas about paintings.